By Andrea Barizza | settembre 13, 2008
Pubblichiamo il materiale dell’ultimo numero di Ad Parnassum.
A Journal of Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Instrumental Music
Volume 6, Issue 11, April 2008
ROBERTO ILLIANO: EDITORIAL. THE CRITICAL EDITION OF MUZIO CLEMENTI’S COMPLETE WORKS IS AN ITALIAN NATIONAL EDITION (P. 5)
- JOHN IRVING: Listening again and again: Mozart’s Music in Niemetschek’s ‘Life’ (p. 7)
- MARTIN EYBL: From Court to Public: The Uses of Keyboard Concertos in Austria 1750-1770 (p. 19)
- DANIELA MACCHIONE: Gioachino Rossini: «Aria variata per il violino». Storia di un tema (p. 41)
- EDUARDO LOPES: Rhythm and Meter Compositional Tools in a Chopin’s Waltz (p. 65)
- FLOYD GRAVE: C. P. E. Bach Studies (p. 85)
- ROBERT ZAPPULLA: Giulia Nuti, The Performance of Italian Basso Continuo (p. 90)
- FULVIA MORABITO: Luigi Boccherini. Estudio sobre fuentes, receptión e historiografía (p. 95)
- CLAUDIA MACDONALD: The Cambridge Companion to Schumann (p. 103)
- ROHAN H. STEWART-MACDONALD: Jeremy Dibble, John Stainer: A Life in Music (p. 109)
- ESTI SHEINBERG: Marina Ritzarev, Eighteenth-Century Russian Music (p. 115)
- BENEDICT TAYLOR: Simon P. Keefe, Mozart’s Viennese Instrumental Music: A Study of Stylistic Re-invention (p. 119)
- Forthcoming Conferences (p. 123)
- Call for Papers (p. 130)
- Contributors (p. 133)
- Books Received (p. 135)
- Abstracts (p. 137)
Index of Names (p. 139)
JOHN IRVING: Listening again and again: Mozart’s Music in Niemetschek’s ‘Life’
Franz Xavier Niemetschek’s Leben der k.k. Kapellmeisters Wolfgang Gottlieb Mozart nach Originalquellen beschrieben, first published in 1798 and reprinted in 1808, is the earliest biography of Mozart. While it appears unduly subjective in its approach to the writing of biography – at least for modern agendas of historical scholarship – it nevertheless contains some valuable reflections on Mozart’s life and art. Among these is Niemetschek’s claim that «The true beauty of [Mozart's] music is best appreciated when it has been heard several times [...] Do we not enjoy listening to his piano concertos, sonatas and songs as much the thirtieth as the first time? Who has plumbed the depths of his violin quartets and quintets even after hearing them many times? This is the real touchstone of classical worth». Niemetschek makes no attempt to justify these claims, and in doing so retrospectively, we uncover a network of important contexts for the appreciation of Mozart’s music, principally authorial intention, communication and reception, and the nature of inspiration and creative response – all of these invoking the opposition of analytic versus aesthetic modes of thought and their claims and counter-claims.
MARTIN EYBL: From Court to Public: The Uses of Keyboard Concertos in Austria 1750-1770
The keyboard concerto in the 1750s and 1760s has traditionally received less attention from scholars than those genres generally regarded as the period’s most innovative: symphony and string quartet. Indeed, from the perspective of formal organization, the concerto appears rather conventional. More than other genres of instrumental music, however, the keyboard concerto reflects an ongoing process of cultural decentralization in the Habsburg Empire during the reign of Empress Maria Theresia (1740-1780). Three manuscript collections of some fifty keyboard concertos by Wagenseil, Hofmann, Steffan, Haydn and others were originally intended for private use by the Empress’ daughters, yet this imperial repertoire gradually lost its exclusiveness. The wide dissemination of these works sheds light on developing markets of music, musical instruments, and private music lessons. Taking these works as a point of departure, this paper examines the circulation of music within its social contexts and, in addition, considers problems of terminology, genre, and performance practice. In 1760s Austria the keyboard concerto could be regarded as both chamber music and orchestral music. In order to illuminate the contemporary genre categories, the paper focuses on the interrelation among diverse scorings, the different titles sometimes used for the same composition (concerto, concertino, concert), and the different genres to which variant versions of some works belong (divertimento solo, accompanied keyboard divertimento, keyboard concerto). The keyboard concerto was played by amateurs and professionals both, in aristocratic circles and in public concerts. Its various manifestations thus provide insight to a more and more diversified musical practice.
DANIELA MACCHIONE: Gioachino Rossini: «Aria variata per il violino». Storia di un tema
L’occasione del presente saggio è stata offerta dal ritrovamento di una serie di variazioni manoscritte, intitolata Aria variata per il Violino attribuita a Rossini. Una macchia copre il nome del dedicatario della composizione, che si può presumere appartenesse alla numerosa schiera di dilettanti di talento la cui estrazione sociale permetteva di dedicarsi all’arte musicale per diletto appunto, senza necessità di farne un “mestiere”. L’anno e il luogo di composizione (Bergamo 1814), appartenenti a un periodo della biografia del giovane Rossini tra i meno conosciuti e alcune considerazioni storico-sociali non escludono la sua autenticità. Rossiniana o meno, nella sua semplicità formale e moderata ambizione tecnico-esecutiva, la breve serie di sette variazioni documenta un genere, quello delle variazioni su tema dato, tra i più largamente diffusi già nel Settecento e allo stesso tempo illustra la condizione del violinismo italiano dell’epoca, in cui Paganini rappresenta ancora un’eccezione, di chiara tradizione locatelliana. L’uso quotidiano di composizioni come Aria variata, ne fa un “prodotto intellettuale”, nella cui produzione, modalità d’uso e consumo si possono tuttavia riconoscere i condizionamenti di quella che gli storici hanno definito cultura materiale. Con procedimenti tecnico-compositivi non estranei all’ars combinatoria, il tema dell’Aria variata è quello della contraddanza de Il noce di Benevento, balletto di Salvatore Viganò su musica di Süßmayr, resa celebre dalla serie di variazioni di Paganini, Le Streghe Op. 8. Quest’ultima composizione in particolare sembra essere il tramite della derivazione tematica, non letterale. Parte centrale del saggio è la proposta di una lettura sinestetica di documenti letterari, musicali, iconografici che illustrano la storia esemplare di questo “Tema”, la sua ricezione e le motivazioni culturali, musicali della sua scelta.
EDUARDO LOPES: Rhythm and Meter Compositional Tools in a Chopin’s Waltz
Although many musicians (whether composers, performers, or writers) see rhythm as the most fundamental and indispensable element of music, the traditional music theory often positions the durational parameters of music (i.e. rhythm and meter) at an hierarchical second plan, seeking to understand them in relation to pitch structure. Even though 20th century music theory raises the awareness for rhythmic issues in music, it mainly concentrates on contemporary music. This stance may lead the most distracted to believe that the music (i.e. composers) from the past did not place particular structural or perceptual importance on rhythm and meter. Conversely, in this article I explore rhythmic issues present in Chopin’s Waltz in C Sharp Minor, Op. 64 no. 2. The striking Romantic individuality of Chopin as a composer, clearly evident in the way he develops the basic characteristics of his pieces, allows an extensive assessment of the operation of rhythmic constructs (in this case those of a ternary nature): while the specific motional qualities that define the waltz will be traced to the internal organisation of these constructs, the compositional processes involved in the development of these qualities will be also investigated. In particular I shall examine the relationship between the operation of different rhythmic constructs and the musical contexts in which they are inserted. For the above I will use ‘Just in Time’ – a purely durational rhythmic analytical construct which assesses the operation and qualities (mainly salience and kinesis) of rhythm and meter, and their interaction with other music parameters. As a proof that indeed rhythm is of paramount importance in music of many genres an ages, this article shows some ways in which Chopin links saliences produced by the rhythmic organisation and saliences produced in other parameters; it also shows how the rhythmic development of this waltz derives from thematic material presented at its very beginning.
Martin Eybl is Professor of Music History at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna. His Research is focused on Aesthetics and Music Theory in early 20th century, Austrian music of the 18th century, and editions of early music. He published «Ideologie und Methode. Zum ideengeschichtlichen Kontext von Schenkers Musiktheorie» (1995), «Die Befreiung des Augenblicks. Schönbergs Skandalkonzerte von 1907 und 1908. Eine Dokumentation» (2004) and critical editions of works by Pieter Maessins (1995) and Johann Joseph Fux (2000).
John Irving is Professor of Music History and Performance Practice at the University of Bristol, UK. His main interest is in the instrumental music of Mozart, especially the piano and chamber music on which he has published three books and numerous articles, book chapters and reviews. He is a frequent speaker at musicology conferences in the UK and internationally and is also active in the field of historical performance practice. He has recently completed a recording of sonatas by Leopold Mozart and his Salzburg contemporaries on historical keyboards from the Edinburgh University Musical Instrument Collection, a project supported by a British Academy Research Grant.
(Chicago, IL – Rome)
Daniela Macchione received a Ph.D. in ‘Storia e analisi delle culture musicali’ from the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’ (2003/2004) defending a dissertation on instrumental music in Rome during the XIX century. She is the Secretary of the Works of Gioachino Rossini edition (Bärenreiter-Verlag) and co-editor of «Chamber Music without Piano», the first volume of the series. Associate at the University of Chicago, she has been currently working on «OperaCat», a project focused on autographs sold at auction as well as on the antiquarian market related to Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini, Verdi and Puccini.
Eduardo Lopes studied Drums and Percussion at the Rotterdam Conservatorium, The Netherlands. Holds a Bachelor Degree (Summa Cum Laude) in Performance and Composition from Berklee College of Music (Boston, MA) and a Ph.D. in Music Theory from the University of Southampton, UK. Besides being an active performer, he has research interests and publishes in the areas of Music Theory and Performance Studies. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Music at the University of Evora, Portugal.